Indian Kino | Pterocarpus Marsupium for Type 2 Diabetes

Indian Kino also known as Pterocarpus Marsupium is the best known herb for controlling blood sugar in Type 2 Diabetes in Ayurveda. One of the most powerful herb known so far.

Indian Kino Tree Cup made from original Pterocarpus Marsupium heart wood is widely used by Indian traditional healers since vedic age for controlling blood sugar in Type 2 Diabetes.

Although the benefits of this amazing herb is appreciated in many scriptures of ancient Ayurveda, its effect is well discussed in Nighantu which is oldest treatise on etymology.

                          बीजक: पीतसारश्च पीतशालक इत्यपि।
                                  बन्धूकपुष्प: प्रियक: सर्जकश्चासन: स्मृत: ।।२८।।

                        बीजक: कुष्ठवीसर्पश्चित्रमेहगुद किमान् ।
                                 हन्ति श्लेष्मास्रपित्तञ्च त्वच्य: केश्यो रसायन:।।२९।।

                       यथा सर्वाणि कुष्ठनि हत : खादिर बीजकौ | (सु. चि. ६)

                      बीजक : सकषायश्च कफपित्तानाशन : | (घ. नि. )

The above scripture in sanskrit language describes that Indian Kino (Pterocarpus Marsupium) Pacifies Kapha & Pitta, Controls blood sugar in Type 2 Diabetes & its complications.

According to Ancient Ayurveda, Diabetes is classified into 21 types out of which 16 types of Diabetes is known to have been occurred due to vitiation of Kapha (10 Types) & Pitta (6 Types).

Type 2 Diabetes is known to have occurred due to disorder or imbalance of Kapha & Pitta. This wonderful herb Indian Kino effectively pacifies Kapha & Pitta disorders and therefore this single herb has potential to control Type 2 Diabetes.

Ayurveda further states that Indian Kino herb has potent effect on मूत्रवहसंस्थान Mutr-vah-sansthan i.e. Urinary system and therefore helpful in blood sugar control & its complications.

Type 2 Diabetes is known to occur due to many factors like obesity, High Cholesterol Levels & uncontrolled diabetes also results in uncontrolled infections & early ageing.

This amazing herb Indian Kino is known to possess properties like मेदोहर Medohara (reduces fat and cholesterol levels), सात्मीकरण Satmikran (Helpful in Obesity) & रसायन Rasayana ( anti-ageing, causes cell & tissue rejuvenation) and therefore it is a perfect herb for synergistic way of treating Type 2 Diabetes & its  complications.

The Effect of Indian Kino (Pterocarpus Marsupium) on Type 2 Diabetes is scientifically validated

Here is the proof

Indian Kino
  1.  Anti-oxidant approach to disease management and role of rasayana herbs of Ayurveda. Govindarajan R, Pushpangadan P, Vijayakumar M.J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;99:165–78. [PubMed]

The disease preventive and health promotive approach of ‘Ayurveda’, which takes into consideration the whole body, mind and spirit while dealing with the maintenance of health, promotion of health and treating ailments is holistic and finds increasing acceptability in many regions of the world. Ancient Ayurvedic physicians had developed certain dietary and therapeutic measures to arrest/delay ageing and rejuvenating whole functional dynamics of the body system. This revitalization and rejuvenation is known as the ‘Rasayan chikitsa’ (rejuvenation therapy). Traditionally, Rasayana drugs are used against a plethora of seemingly diverse disorders with no pathophysiological connections according to modern medicine. Though, this group of plants generally possesses strong antioxidant activity, only a few have been investigated in detail. Over about 100 disorders like Type 2 Diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, CVS disorders, cystic fibrosis, metabolic disorders, neuro-degenerative diseases, gastrointestinal ulcerogenesis and AIDS have been reported as reactive oxygen species mediated. In this review, the role of free radicals in these diseases has been briefly reviewed. ‘Rasayana’ plants with potent antioxidant activity have been reviewed for their traditional uses, and mechanism of antioxidant action. Fifteen such plants have been dealt with in detail and some more plants with less work have also been reviewed briefly.

In view of the above, here is a strong reason why Indian Kino / Pterocarpus Marsupium is most suitable herb for controlling Type 2 Diabetes.

  1. Pterocarpus marsupium (Indian Kino) extract reveals strong in vitro antioxidant activity

Mahnaaz Mohammadi1, Swati Khole1, Thomas Paul Asir Devasagayam2, Saroj S. Ghaskadbi1, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune, India; 2 Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India.

Diabetes mellitus is a complex chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, which via several mechanism leads to an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to various secondary complications. Thus, a drug having both antidiabetic and antioxidant properties would have great therapeutic value for overcoming the oxidative load in type 2 diabetes. The present study was aimed at extensively evaluating the antioxidant properties of an anti-diabetic plant extract of stem bark of Indian Kino | Pterocarpus marsupium using various in vitro radical scavenging assays as well as by using liver slice cultures as a model system. Our results demonstrate that the whole aqueous extract showed high antioxidant activity in all different assays used and also protected mitochondria against oxidative damage. Additionally, levels of antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were also estimated. The whole aqueous extract significantly reduced LDH release along with reduction of lipid peroxidation compared to ethanol treated slices. These results indicate that the Pterocarpus marsupium or Indian Kino extract may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

3. Hypoglycaemic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Indian Kino)

The antidiabetic activity of various subfractions of the alcohol extract of the bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb./Indian Kino was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of these extracts on lipid profile and liver function tests were also assessed to evaluate their activity in controlling diabetes related metabolic alterations. The parameters measured were plasma glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT. The results indicate the effective role of Pterocarpus marsupium./Indian Kino on the above mentioned parameters indicating that Pterocarpus marsupium./Indian Kino can also control the diabetes related metabolic alterations apart from controlling the glucose levels. Among the fractions tested the butanol subfraction was found to be more active in comparison with other subfractions. It can be concluded that the butanol subfraction of the alcohol extract of Pterocarpus marsupium./Indian Kino exhibits significant antidiabetic activity and corrects the metabolic alterations in diabetic rats and this activity may resemble insulin-like properties.

  1. Antihyperglycemic activity of phenolics from Pterocarpus marsupium /Indian Kino in Type 2 Diabetes.Manickam M1, Ramanathan M, Jahromi MA, Chansouria JP, Ray AB.

Glucose levels in rats with hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin were determined after i.p. administration of marsupsin (1), pterosupin (2), and pterostilbene (3), three important phenolic constituents of the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium (Indian Kino). Marsupsin and pterostilbene significantly lowered the blood glucose level of hyperglycemic rats, and the effect was comparable to that of 1,1-dimethylbiguanide (metformin).

  1. Antidiabetic activity of heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. /Indian Kino and analysis of phytoconstituents.Mishra A1, Srivastava R, Srivastava SP, Gautam S, Tamrakar AK, Maurya R, Srivastava AK.

 The crude powder, ethanolic extract and aqueous, chloroform, hexane and n-butanol soluble fractions of ethanolic extract of heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium (Indian Kino) showed marked improvement on oral glucose tolerance post sucrose load in normal rats. All these fractions except aqueous fraction showed improvement on oral glucose tolerance post sucrose load on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The crude powder, ethanolic extract and hexane and n-butanol fractions showed marked decline in blood glucose level on STZ-induced diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg body weight) when given to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 10 consecutive days declined blood glucose, improved OGTT and increased their serum insulin levels. The ethanolic extract also showed marked improvement on oral glucose tolerance on high fat-low dosed STZ-induced diabetic rats and neonatally STZ treated rats. The ethanolic extract of P. marsupium also showed marked antidyslipidemic effects on high fat diet fed Syrian golden hamsters. Altered renal and hepatic function markers and serum insulin levels of high fat diet fed-low dosed STZ-treated diabetic rats were also found towards normalization when these animals were treated with ethanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium (Indian Kino) for 28 consecutive days. The four out of five phenolic C-glycosides isolated from n-butanol fraction of ethanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium /Indian Kino enhanced glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) in a dose dependent manner. It may primarily be concluded that phenolic-C-glycosides present in Pterocarpus marsupium heart wood are the phytoconstituents responsible for the antihyperglycemic activity and validate the claim of antidiabetic activity of heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium (Indian Kino) in Type 2 Diabetes.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. / Indian Kino heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Devgan M1, Nanda A, Ansari SH.

The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. /Indian Kino heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium /Indian Kino heartwood were prepared by conventional methods (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) and non conventional methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The crude aqueous extracts were administered orally to both normal and alloxan induced male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). The experimental set up consisted of 48 male albino rats divided into 6 groups: Normal control, diabetic control (sterile normal saline, 1 ml/100 g body weight), standard (gliclazide, 25 mg/1000g of body weight), groups 4-6 (crude aqueous percolation, optimized UAE and MAE extract, 250 mg/1000g of body weight). In acute treatment, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant with the oral administration of UAE and percolation aqueous extracts to the hyperglycemic rats. In sub-acute treatment, the UAE aqueous extract led to consistent and statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose levels. There was no abnormal change in body weight of the hyperglycemic animals after 10 days of administration of plant extracts and gliclazide. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino to treat diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino can be enhanced by extracting the heartwood by non conventional method of UAE.

  1. Molecular Action of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Hyperglycemic Rats: Effect of Different Concentrations of Pterocarpus marsupiums Extract./ Indian Kino  Pari L1, Majeed M2, Rathinam A1, Chandramohan R1.

Pterocarpus marsupium (Roxb.) (family Fabaceae)  also known as Indian Kino is widely used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases, including Type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism of Pterocarpus marsupium  / Indian Kino has not been investigated. Two fractions (2.5% and 5%) of extract from the medicinal plant Pterocarpus marsupium  / Indian Kino (PME) were administered in a dose-dependent manner in rats with streptozotocin-induced (45 mg/kg body weight) type 2 diabetes. Each fraction of PME was administered intragastrically at a dose of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight for 45 days. The effective dose 200 mg/kg body weight of 5% fraction was more pronounced in reducing the levels of blood glucose (95.65 mg/dL) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (0.41 mg/g Hb) and increasing the plasma insulin (16.20 µU/mL) level. The altered activities of the key enzymes of lipid metabolism along with the lipid profile in diabetic rats were significantly reverted to near normal levels by the administration of PME 5% 200 mg/kg body weight fraction. PME (200 mg/kg body weight) has the ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) Interleukin-6 (IL-6) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), as well as protein expression and apoptotic marker, such as caspase-3 enzyme, in diabetic hepatic tissue. Biochemical findings were also supported by histological studies, such as improvement in pancreas and liver. Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino could effectively reduce the inflammation and hyperglycemic condition in diabetic rats; hence, it could be a useful tool in the management of Type 2 Diabetes.

8. Constituents of Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino : an ayurvedic crude drug.

Maurya R1, Singh R, Deepak M, Handa SS, Yadav PP, Mishra PK.

Five new flavonoid C-glucosides, 6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-benzofuran-7-C-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3-(alpha-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxybenzo-2(3H)-furanone-7-C-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), 2-hydroxy-2-p-hydroxybenzyl-3(2H)-6-hydroxybenzofuranone-7-C-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), 8-(C-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-7,3′,4′-trihydroxyflavone (5) and 1,2-bis(2,4-dihydroxy,3-C-glucopyranosyl)-ethanedione (6) and two known compounds C-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-2,6-dihydroxyl benzene (7) and sesquiterpene (8), were isolated from an aqueous extract of the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino. The structure has been established using spectroscopic data.

9. Flexible dose open trial of Pterocarpus Marsupium / Indian Kino in cases of newly-diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Collaborating Centres, New Delhi.

  • Indian J Med Res 1998 Nov;108:253.

 flexible dose open trial was undertaken in four centres in India to evaluate the efficacy of an Ayurvedic drug Pterocarpus marsupium- Indian Kino in the treatment of newly-diagnosed or untreated non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). By 12 wk, control of blood glucose (both fasting and postprandial levels) had been attained in 67 (69%) of 97 patients studied, and the dose on which control was attained was 2 g of the extract in about 73 per cent of the patients, 3 g in about 16 per cent and 4 g in 10 per cent of the patients. Four patients had to be withdrawn from treatment due to excessively high postprandial blood glucose levels. Among the 93 patients who completed 12 wk of treatment, both the fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels fell significantly (P < 0.001), by 32 and 45 mg/dl at 12 wk from the initial means of 151 and 216 mg/dl respectively. Mean HbA1c decreased significantly (P < 0.001) to 9.4 per cent at 12 wk from the initial mean of 9.8 per cent. No significant change was observed in the mean levels of lipids. Other laboratory parameters remained stable during the designated treatment period of 12 wk. Also, no side-effects were reported. Hence, it is concluded that Pterocarpus Marsupium / Indian Kino is useful in the treatment of newly diagnosed or untreated mild NIDDM patients.

  1. Hypoglycemic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus Adesh Patidar, S. D. Tonpay, Navneet Agrawal.

 Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder, and it requires drug treatment over a long period of time. Apart from synthetic drugs available in the market for the management of diabetes, there is voluminous literature pouring on indigenous medicine with claim for the utility in diabetes mellitus. Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino is one of the traditional medicinal plants with hypoglycemic activity, used by a lot of patients on a large scale. The objectives of the study were to compare the blood glucose lowering effect of Pterocarpus  marsupium  / Indian Kino as add-on therapy with oral hypoglycemic drugs in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and to determine adverse events (if any).

Methods: The study was carried out at tertiary care hospital of Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. Total of 56 old uncontrolled hyperglycemic (Type 2 diabetes mellitus) patients already taking oral hypoglycemic drugs were enrolled on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The duration of treatment with Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino as add-on therapy with glimepiride+metformin or glimepiride+metformin+pioglitazone was 12 weeks with 4 weekly clinical attendances for review and collection of the drug. It was prospective, open, non-randomized, interventional, efficacy, and safety type of study, the dosage of Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino wood powder being 2-4 g/day.
Results: At the end of treatment (12 weeks) with Pterocarpus  marsupium / Indian Kino as add-on therapy, mean fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were compared with baseline using student’s paired t-test.  Pterocarpus marsupium  / Indian Kino could effectively reduce the inflammation and hyperglycemic condition of people suffering from Type 2 Diabetes. 

11 Insulinotrophic and insulin-like effects of a high molecular weight aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb./  Indian Kino hardwood

Suresh K.MohankumarTimO’SheaJames R.McFarlane

 Ethnopharmacological relevance

Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (PM) / Indian Kino is an Ayurvedic traditional medicine well known for its antidiabetic potential.


Exposure of mouse pancreatic and muscle tissues to PME stimulated the insulin secretion and glucose uptake, respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner. PME-mediated muscle glucose uptake was not potentiated in the presence of insulin indicating that PME acts via pathways which are utilized by insulin. Bio-assay-guided fractionation of PME yielded a high molecular weight fraction which had potent antidiabetic properties in vitro, and in in vivo.


Our findings, we believe for the first time, provide novel insights for the antidiabetic constituents of Pterocarpus Marsupium  / Indian Kino and demonstrate that a high molecular weight constituent(s) of PM has potent insulinotrophic and insulin-like properties.

  1. Confirmation towards establishing antidiabetic activity in heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino and analysis of phytoconstituents

Authors:Mishra, Akansha;Srivastava, Rohit;Srivastava, S P;Gautam, Sudeep;Maurya, Rakesh;Tamrakar, A K;Srivastava, A K

The crude powder, ethanolic extract and aqueous, chloroform, hexane and n-butanol soluble fractions of ethanolic extract of heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium (Family: Fabaceae) / Indian Kino  showed marked improvement on oral glucose tolerance post sucrose load in normal rats, and all these except aqueous fraction showed improvement on oral glucose tolerance post sucrose load on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The crude powder, ethanolic extract and hexane and n-butanol fractions showed marked decline in blood glucose level on STZ-induced diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract when given to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 10 consecutive days declined blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and increased their serum insulin levels. The ethanolic extract also showed marked improvement on oral glucose tolerance on high fat-low dosed streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and neonatally streptozotocin treated rats. The ethanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino also showed marked antidyslipidemic effects on high fat diet fed Syrian golden hamsters. Altered renal and hepatic function markers and serum insulin levels of high fat diet fed-low dosed streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats were also found towards normalization when these animals were treated with ethanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino for 28 consecutive days. The four out of five phenolic C-glycosides isolated from n-butanol fraction of ethanolic extract of Pterocrapus marsupium / Indian Kino enhanced glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) in a dose dependent manner. It may primarily be concluded at the moment that phenolic-C-glycosides present in Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino heart wood are the phytoconstituents responsible for the antihyperglycemic activity and validate the claim of antidiabetic activity in heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium / Indian Kino.

Vijaysar Tumbler for diabetes


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The Bitter Tonic for Health : Azadirachta indica – Neem

Azadirachta indica also known as Neem is known as Bitter Tonic for Health.

A. Juss. (Family: Meliaceae) Hindi name: Neem; Common name: Indian lilac tree

Synonyms in Sanskrit – Arishta, Pichumarda, Pichumanda, sarvatibhadra, Hinguniryasa, yavaneshta, Shukaprya, Neta, Subhadra, Prabhadra, Sutikta

In English, it is called as Margosa tree or Neem tree.

Benefits of Neem as per Ayurveda :
Charaka Samhita –
Kandughna (group of herbs that are useful in relieving itching.)
Tiktaskandha (group of bitter tasting herbs) 

Sushruta Samhita – Aragwadhadi, Guduchyadi and Lakshadi

Rasa – Taste – Bitter (tikta) and astringent (kashaya)
Guna – qualities – Light to digest (Laghu), Dry (rooksha)
Vipaka – Undergoes taste conversion into pungency after digestion. – Katu Vipaka
Veerya – Potency – Cold in nature.

Neem uses and qualities

benefit of neem plant1

Generally all parts of neem have following health benefits.
Sheeta – Nimba imparts cooling qualities to the body.
Laghu – undergoes digestion and absorption pretty easily and quickly.
Grahi – helps in absorbing moisture from the intestine. Dries up and cleans up the moisture in wounds and ulcers.
Katu – has pungent taste. It also undergoes pungent taste conversion after digestion.
Tikta – has bitter taste
Agnikrut – improves digestion process
Vatakrut – increases Vata
Ahrudya – not so good for heart.
Shramahara – relieves tiredness
Truthara – relieves excessive thirst. Since it decreases Pitta, it is useful in fever and associated thirst.
Kasahara – Helps to relieve cough. It is very useful in infective respiratory problems. It has anti-microbial properties.
Jwarahara – Useful in fever, due to its potent anti microbial phyto-chemicals.
Aruchihara – Helps to relieve anorexia. Bitter tasting herbs, though very difficult to consume, have this unique property of relieving anorexia.
Krumihara – Actual translation is – relieves worms. Nimba is useful in intestinal worms, infested wounds, and as an anti -microbial agent.
Vranahara – Helps to cleanse and heal wound quickly.
Pitta – Kaphahara – Balances Pitta and Kapha. Note that, though neem has Cold quality, it helps to balance Kapha (which also has cold quality). This is due to its other properties such as Katu vipaka (pungent taste conversion after digestion).
Chardi – hrillasa hara – Helps to relieve nausea and vomiting
Kushtahara – Useful in numerous skin diseases
Mehanut – Useful in diabetes and disorders related to urinary tract.

Neem in Diabetes and associated skin diseases / wound – As explained above, neem helps in diabetes, it helps to lower the blood glucose levels. Neem is also very useful in skin diseases and heals the wound. Hence, it is one of the herbal ingredient in many Ayurvedic medicines used in diabetes. Not only does it help reduce / maintain blood sugar levels, it also helps to heal wounds quickly and relieves skin diseases such as diabetic carbuncles.  A good example for such an Ayurvedic medicine is Pancha Nimba Churna.

Neem powder in bathing water or soap People with repeated skin infections, with pus and redness, and people with repeated abscess problem, it is a good idea to add a spoon of neem powder to a bucket hot water, and use this water for bathing.

Neem leaf benefits:

Neem leaves do have similar qualities as discussed above, but it has some special benefits.
Netrya – It is good for eyes. Helps to relieve infection.
Kruminut – Helps relieve worms and microbes
Pittanut – Balances Pitta
Vishanut – Natural detoxifier.
Vatala – increases Vata.
Katupaka – Punget taste conversion after conversion
Arochaka and Kushtanut – relieves skin diseases and anorexia.

Neem fruit benefits: 

Neem fruit is Bhedana – helps to pass bowels easily
Snidgha – Unctuous, oily
Laghu – light to digest
Ushna – hot in potency
Gulmanut – Relieves bloating
Arshanut – relieves piles (hemorrhoids)
Kriminut – relieves worms and infection
Mehanut – Helps in diabetes.

Other health benefits of Neem as mentioned in other Ayurvedic text books – 
Raktapittanut – Helps to relieve bleeding disorders, because of its coolant nature.
Shothahara – Useful in inflammatory conditions and skin conditions with redness and pus.
Twig of neem is especially beneficial in respiratory problems such as bronchitis, cough and cold.
Neem flower is good for eyes
Oil extracted from neem fruit is pungent, has piercing quality, hot in potency, useful in skin diseases and headache. (Sushruta)

Different ways to use neem
Lepa –
 Neem powder (mixed with other herbs or alone), can be made into paste with water or honey, to apply over the skin or wound in the form of paste.  

Ahara – Neem can be used as part of food or as oral medication.

Snana – Neem powder, added to hot water can be used to take bath

kashaya – Neem water decoction can be used to wash, during infection. Like washing the eyes, infected pile mass.
The same water decoction can also be used for sitz bath in peri anal abscess or infected anal fistula or hemorrhoids.

Neem side effects:
Since it can lower blood glucose levels, as a general rule, if you’re fasting, better to avoid oral intake of neem.
People with diabetes should use neem only under medical supervision,with constant blood glucose level  monitoring.
It is best to take the advice of your doctor before using neem during childhood, pregnancy or lactation.
If you are using neem oil for hair, (as in case of dandruff), while washing off the oil, it may cause burning sensation to the eyes. Take care.

How neem oil capsule is useful in cold and cough?
Neem oil capsule in cold and cough is useful especially when there is infection and sinusitis. It helps to prevent or treat infection, being a potent anti bacterial and anti viral herb.
However, it is not usually used as a single medicine to treat cold and cough. Usually a combination of
Sitopaladi churna / Talisadi churna with neem oil capsule  or
Any such other cold cough medicines along with neem oil capsule is advised.
It is very useful when cold / cough is associated with fever.
So, it is used as an adjuvant and supportive to other medicines in the treatment of cold and cough.

Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica is known to produce antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic activities in diabetic dogs (Satyanarayan et al., 1978). Fresh leaves decoction possessed anti-hyperglycemic activity and increased the peripheral glucose utilization in normal rats (Chattopadhyay et al., 1987). Crude ethanol extract of leaves (250mg/kg, for 2 weeks) potentially lowered the blood sugar level of alloxan induced diabetic rats (Kar et al., 2003). Petroleum ether extract of
seed kernel (2gm/kg b.w.) & seed husk (0.9gm/kg b.w.) has been reported to reduce oxidative stress in heart tissue and erythrocytes of STZ induced diabetic rats (Gupta et al., 2004). Beta-sitosterol, a steroid obtained from Azadirachta indica, has been reported to possess hypoglycemic property (Mukherjee et al., 2006).